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We value research. We seek new scientific advancements in both the discovery of new ingredients and further research into the ingredients we already use. This research allows us to deliver products of the highest quality to our customers.

These are the scientific publications we have been involved in:

Author: Miho Yoshida, Yamakawa, Kazuyuki Uchino, Yasuhiro Watanabe, Tadashi Adachi, Mami Nakanishi, Hikari Ichino, Kunihiro Hongo, Tomohiro Mizobata, Saori Kobayashi, Kenji Nakashima, Yasushi Kawata
Journal: Nutritional Neuroscience
Year: in press
Volume, Issue, Page: in press
Summary: Alzheimer's disease is caused by aggregation of amyloid beta peptide. This study revealed that anthocyanoside extracts obtained from bilberry on the in vitro progression of amyloid beta peptide fibril formation in vivo.
Author: Tomoya Asano, Saori Kobayashi, Katsuhisa Sakano, Shukuko Ebihara
Journal: Japanese Journal of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Science
Year: 2015
Volume, Issue, Page: 72, 7, 1261-1273
Summary: Most women are interested in skin health and beauty. Resveratrol extracted from lingonberry is well-known as an antioxidant. Supplement made from this extract improved skin elasticity in women.
Author: Norihiro Nagai, Kanako Izumi-Nagai, Misa Suzuki, Hajime Shinoda, Takashi Koto, Atsuro Uchida, Hiroshi Mochimaru, Yohei Tomita, Seiji Miyake, Saori Kobayashi, Mariko Sasaki, Kazuo Tsubota, Yoko Ozawa
Journal: Retina
Year: 2015
Volume, Issue, Page: 35, 4, 820-6
Summary: Lutein and Zeaxanthin intake are correlated to macular pigment optical density (MPOD). MPOD was positively correlated with serum concentrations of L and Z and dietary L intake and inversely correlated with serum oxidized low-density lipoprotein.
Author: Y. Ozawa, M. Kawashima, S. Inoue, E. Inagaki, A. Suzuki, E. Ooe, S. Kobayashi, Kazuo Tsubota
Journal: The journal of nutrition, health & aging
Year: 2015
Volume, Issue, Page: 19, 5, 548-554
Summary: To examine the effect of a dietary supplement containing bilberry extract on eye fatigue, the acute video display terminal (VDT) loads were used in this study. VDT load-induced ocular fatigue sensation, ocular pain, eye heaviness, uncomfortable sensation, and foreign body sensation were mitigated more in the BE group than in the control group at 8 week.
Author: Kenjirou Ogawa, Yoshiki Kuse, Kazuhiro Tsuruma, Saori Kobayashi, Masamitsu Shimazaw, Hideaki Hara
Journal: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 
Year: 2014
Volume, Issue, Page: 14, 120
Summary: Bilberry and lingonberry contain high amounts of polyphenols and thus confer health benefits. Bilberry and lingonberry extracts exert protective effects against blue LED light-induced retinal photoreceptor cell damage mainly through inhibition of ROS production and activation of pro-apoptotic proteins.
Author: Seiji Miyake, Saori Kobayashi, Kazuo Tsubota, Yoko Ozawa
Journal: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Year: 2014
Volume, Issue, Page: 446, 2, 535–540
Summary: Lutein treatment of a neuronal cell line (PC12D) immediately resulted in reduced intracellular ROS levels, implying that it has a direct role in ROS scavenging. Lutein treatment also induced phase II antioxidative enzyme expression, probably via a nuclear factor-like 2 independent pathway. 
Author: Hisanori Iwasa, Hiroshi Kameda, Naoya Fukui, Sakiho Yoshida, Kunihiro Hongo, Tomohiro Mizobata, Saori Kobayashi, and Yasushi Kawata
Journal: Biochemistry
Year: 2013
Volume, Issue, Page: 52, 51, 9202–9211
Summary: The presence of anthocyanins that are abundant in bilberry could inhibit both fibril formation and the toxicity of intermediates. The anthocyanins may display a general and potent inhibitory effect on the amyloid fibril formation of various conformational disease-causing proteins.
Author: Kenjirou Ogawa, Kazuhiro Tsuruma, Junji Tanaka, Mamoru Kakino, Saori Kobayashi, Masamitsu Shimazawa, and Hideaki Hara
Journal: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Year: 2013
Volume, Issue, Page: 61, 43, 10345–10353
Summary: Bilberry extract and cyanidin inhibited phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, and it also inhibited phosphorylation of JNK by UVA. The trans-resveratrol and procyanidin from lingonberry extract alleviated the reduction of phosphorylated Akt levels by UVA. The Bilberry and lingonberry extracts protected against ultraviolet A (UVA)-induced retinal photoreceptor cell damage. 
Author: Mariko Sasaki, Kenya Yuki, Toshihide Kurihara, Seiji Miyake, Kosuke Noda, Saori Kobayashi, Susumu Ishida, Kazuo Tsubota, Yoko Ozawa
Journal: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Year: 2012
Volume, Issue, Page: 23, 5, 423–429 
Summary: Lutein induced EYA for DNA repair, which could suppress DNA damage and photoreceptor cell apoptosis. Lutein reduced light-induced oxidative stress in the retina, which might contribute to promote DNA repair. The lutein-supplemented diet attenuated light-induced visual impairment by protecting the photoreceptor cells' DNA.
Author: Seiji Miyake, Noriko Takahashi, Mariko Sasaki, Saori Kobayashi, Kazuo Tsubota, Yoko Ozawa
Journal: Laboratory Investigation 
Year: 2012
Volume, Issue, Page: 92, 102–109
Summary: The anthocyanin-rich bilberry extract ameliorated the intracellular elevation of reactive oxygen species and activated NF-κB, a redox-sensitive transcription factor, in the inflamed retina. The anthocyanin-rich bilberry extract has a protective effect on visual function during retinal inflammation.
Author: Kenjirou Ogawa, Atsushi Oyagi, Junji Tanaka, Saori Kobayashi, Hideaki Hara
Journal: Phytotherapy Research
Year: 2011
Volume, Issue, Page: 25, 8, 1160–1165
Summary: Bilberry extract inhibited lipid peroxide levels in a concentration-dependent manner and showed high scavenging activity against the superoxide anion radical and the hydroxyl radical. Bilberry extract intake significantly protected gastric mucosa against HCl/ethanol-induced gastric ulcers. 
Author: M. Sasaki, Y. Ozawa, T. Kurihara, S. Kubota, K. Yuki, K. Noda, S. Kobayashi, S. Ishida, K. Tsubota
Journal: Diabetologia
Year: 2010
Volume, Issue, Page: 53, 5, 971–979. 
Summary: The local oxidative stress that has a neurodegenerative influence in the diabetic retina is prevented by constant intake of a lutein-supplemented diet. The antioxidant, lutein may be a potential therapeutic approach to protect visual function in diabetes.
Author: Nozomu Matsunaga, Yuichi Chikaraishi, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Shigeru Yokota, Hideaki Hara 
Journal: Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Year: 2010
Volume, Issue, Page: 7, 1, 47-56
Summary: In an in vivo assay, intravitreal administration of bilberry extract inhibited the formation of neovascular tufts during oxygen-induced retinopathy in mice. Bilberry extract inhibited angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo, presumably by inhibiting the phosphorylations of ERK 1/2 and Akt. 
Author: Nozomu Matsunaga, Kazuhiro Tsuruma, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Shigeru Yokota, Hideaki Hara
Journal: Phytotherapy Research
Year: 2010
Volume, Issue, Page: 24, S1,  S42–S47 
Summary: Each of these anthocyanidins concentration-dependently inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor- induced tube formation in a co-culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and fibroblasts.
Author: Hiroyuki Sakakibara, Takeshi Ogawa, Akiharu Koyanagi, Saori Kobayashi, Toshinao Goda, Shigenori Kumazawa, Hirokazu Kobayashi and Kayoko Shimoi
Journal: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Year: 2009
Volume, Issue, Page: 57, 17, 7681–7686
Summary: The bilberry anthocyanins were absorbed into the body and distributed in specific organs, particularly the liver, kidney, and testis. The most common anthocyanins in tissues were malvidin glycosides.
Author: Matsunaga, Shunsuke Imai, Yuta Inokuchi, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Shigeru Yokota, Yoko Araki, Hideaki Hara
Journal: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Year: 2009
Volume, Issue, Page: 53, 7, 869–877
Summary: Bilberry exracts and its anthocyanidins have neuroprotective effects (exerted at least in part via an anti-oxidation mechanism) in these in vitro and in vivo models of retinal diseases.
Author: Mariko Sasaki, Yoko Ozawa, Toshihide Kurihara, Kousuke Noda, Yutaka Imamura, Saori Kobayashi, Susumu Ishida, Kazuo Tsubota 
Journal: Investigative Ophthalmolgy & Visual Science
Year: 2009
Volume, Issue, Page: 50, 3, 1433-1439
Summary: The antioxidant lutein was neuroprotective during endotoxin-induced uveitis, suggesting a potential approach for suppressing retinal neural damage during inflammation.
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